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The role of glucoseamin sulfate and chondroitincSulfate in keeping cartilages healthyKép


The most common joint disease in the grown-up population is joint abrasion (arthrosis), which is most frequently brought about as a consequence of structural changes in the cartilages. As a result of intensive researches, products affecting the regeneration of cartilages became widely available in the treatment of the clinical picture these days. The two main compounds of these are glucoseamin- and chondroitin sulfate, which are inevitable for the healthy recovery and regeneration of the cartilage tissue.



The most important is the water content of the cartilage


The cartilage tissue covering joint surfaces is constituted by cartilage cells and and a vast amount of intercellular substance generated by the cells. This intercellular substance defines the mechanic characteristics (that is, the friction coefficiency, elasticity and resistance) of the cartilage, which stops multiplying after the

growth of cartilage cells is completed though they keep producing the large molecules forming the intercellular substance. These compunds are the so-called proteoglycans, that are built up of protein and glucose and efficient in binding water. If the amount of proteoglycans in cartilage tissue decreases, the cartiladge loses water, it's elasticity decreases and will gradually die. There are two relevant components of the intercellular substance of the cartilage tissue: glycoseamin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, the efficient supplement of which can be of key importance in preventing joint abrasion.



Glucose amin sulfate can be supplemented in pillsKép


Glucoseamin is not only an important building stone in cartilage production by helping the regeneration of damaged joint cartilages, but also inhibits the work of the enzimes degrading the cartilage (hyaluronidase), thus it is able to stop or slow down the process of joint damage. Besides, as it was pointed out by experts, this compound also promotes the viscosity features of the synovial fluid.

Based on the scientific findigs so far, it is a safe assumption to say that the most efficient, fastest absorbing form of glucoseamin is glucoseamin sulfate. This sulfured derivative is supposedly more efficient than the base compound also because sulfur molecules stabilize the molecules composing connective tissues in an effective way. The most common way of dosage is oral, by which 90% of the agents are absorbed through the intestinal system. Only approximately 26% of this absorbed quantity will be utilized by the organism. The compound is stored in the liver bound to proteins. The concentration of glucose amin is the highest in the liver, the kidneys and the joint cartilages and part of the compound is secreted in the synovial fluid as well.



Chondroitin sulfate reforms the elasticity of cartilages


The most characteristic feature of chondroitin sulfate is it can bind water in even larger quantities than glucose amino glycans. In the degenerative processes of cartilage tissues the chondroitin sulfate content of cartilages significantly decreases which results in its decreased water binding capabilities so the elasticity of tissues with smaller water content also drops. This process can lead to a series of micro injuries under strain that could ignite further degenerative processes. However, chondroitin sulfate enhances the proteoglycan and collagene synthesis of cartilage cells largely contributing to reforming the original elasticity of cartilages. This compound not only plays a significant role in cartilage regeneration but – through inactivating the enzimes degrading the cartilage – prevents their devastation and consequently has a strong anti-inflammatory impact as well.

Experimental findings by now definitely proved that chondroitin sulfate applied orally is easily absorbed and infiltrates the synovial fluid in vast quantities.




The two compounds are more effective than anti-inflammatoriesKép


In recent years there have been numerous examinations on the efficiency of glucose amin sulfate and chondroitin sulfate therapies and a number of surveys summarizing the findings so far have been released concerning the issue. Involving large patient groups the result of these examinations clearly show that both glucoseamin- and chondroitin sulfate as well as the combination of the two is an effective agent in treating joint abrasion. Moreover, the patients participating in these surveys reported that their joint pains significantly decreased and their motoric abilities improved, which obviously brought about an improvement in their life quality. Based on these examinations of large numbers of patients it is also apparent, that in the case of mild and mid-severe joint abrasions products including glucoseamin- and chondroitin sulfate decrease the symptoms in the same degree as former anti-inflammatories. At the same time the findings unambiguously show that combined products of this kind have a ot less side effects and more tolerable for patients than non-steroid anti-inflammatories.




Naturally, the treatment of joint abrasion is a very complex process that involves not only medical treatment but physiotherapy and eventually surgical intervention as well. Deciding on the medical treatment, though, is always the doctor's responsibility.


MSM (methylsulphonylmethane), a widely accepted painkiller is a form of organic sulphate which is used by the organism to generate enzimes, anti-bodies, glutation, binding tissues and mucus membranes. It is also crucial to produce amino acids so that sulphuric components help to maintain the molecular structure of proteins.


Kép Predisposition definers


When the knee cap is not placed symmetrically in the femoral pan an uneven strain is created that leads to fast deterioration. This unsymmetric knee cap is also called Jockey patella and can be traceable with x-ray.





Arthrosis (joint cartilage abrasion)


In patients suffering from arthrosis the cartilage covering joints can become thinner, fragmented and successively be absorbed. Any joints in the body can be affected by the disease. Arthrosis generally develops on just one joint, even though if it affects the fingers, more of them can become sick simultaneously.


Arthrosis has been previously regarded as one particular disease but these days there are around a hundred forms differentiated. There is no current causal therapy for arthrosis but with the therapeutic means at hand pain can be reduced and active life can be maintained. How much you can live with arthrosis is in a lot of ways up to your attitude and co-operation too.



What are the symptoms of arthrosis?


Arthrosis usually develops slowly. Certain people don't produce any symptoms even at a developed stage of the disease though generally we have to deal with the following symptoms:

Joint pain and stiffness while moving, painful reaction to changing weather, swollen joints, especially after moving, losing the elasticity of the joint, boney outgrowths around the joints, especially at the fingers.



The exact cause for arthrosis is not known. Presumably the simultaneous presence of more factors contribute to its development: hereditary factors, extreme strain (hard physical work, professional sport, obesity) and the continuous injuries of the joints that might not even come with any complaints (hard physical work, professional sport, aging, weakness, irregular reflexes).



1. Indian Frankincense (Boswellia serrata)Kép


Frankincense or in other words Boswellia serrata is an ancient tree that produces sap. The moist extracted and dried from this tree is incense.


Rheumatic anti-inflammatory. The herb of the MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM.


Generally indicated for inflammations of the joint


The agent of Boswellia Serrata or Indian Frankincense is boswellic acid. This plant was known as an anti-inflammatory agent even in Ancient History. In the 1970s German scientists found that boswellia was more efficient in reducing arthritic pain as opposed to non-steroid anti-inflammatory medications e.g. Ibuprofen, acetylsalicylic acid . In a recent study among rheumatic and osteoarthritic patients boswellia had better results than prescription medicines.



Boswellia Serrata has been used for thousands of years by Indian Ayurvedic medicine for numerous common diseases from rheumatic to stomach pains. The active agent in the sap of boswellia is boswellic acid that was found out to be anti-inflammatory.



It affects the body in a different way and therefore doesn't mean a threat to the gastric mucus membranes, which is the main side-effect of anti-inflammatory substances. Boswellia prevents inflammation in both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.


The primary agent of boswellia is boswellic acid, which prevents the activity of leukocyte elastase (HLE). It is also an inflammatory substance the level of which is elevated in several inflammatory diseases. So far boswellic acid is the only substance that can reduce the level of both leukotrienes and HLE.


Boswellic acid exercises its an anti-inflammatory effect through defending binding tissues and increasing the amount of blood flowing to joints.


Further researches stated that boswellic acid can play a role in delaying the deterioration of joint tissues. Based on examinations on humans and dogs boswellia brings an improvement in pain and joint stiffness within an average of two weeks.



2. Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton)Kép


Popular name: Maritime Pine

Used components, drugs: volatile oil (turpentine oil -  Terebinthini aetheroleum ab pinum pinastrum) produced by steam distillation from the balsam extracted by tapping the tree and refinement under 180ºC.


Main components: alpha and beta pinene (70%, 85% and 20%)


Primary effects: anti-microbial and skin blushing


Reference in pharmaceutical literature: turpentine oil  [Ph. Hg.VIII. - 01/2005:1627 (2007)].


Reference in botanical monography: E-monography (turpentine oil – 1985, 1990)


Uses: externally by rubbing, in the form of steam bath for rheumatic complaints, in the form of  inhalation and pulmonary breast ointments for the complementary treatment of flu and viral pulmonary diseases.



3. Lavender oil (Lavandula officinalis)Kép


The volatile oil of lavender. With antibacterial, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, sedative, pro-circulatory, immunostimulant, painkiller and fungicidal effects. Its value is emphasized by its linalyl acetate content (min. 35%). In the 8th Hungarian Pharma Book it is officially named  Lavandulae aetheroleum.